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understood as:

  • the art of problem solving,

  • correct reasoning,

  • critical thinking (discussed in detail in section 1.4 of this training) 


In addition, an increasingly appreciated competence is the ability to take personal responsibility and it is increasingly required of all employees. This means that you can do your job yourself. You don't need to get approval for everything you do. Due to your personal responsibility, you can judge situations and consequences yourself. Of course, it all depends on many factors, such as the nature of the job, type of responsibility or length of service; however, the ability to make decisions, critical thinking and independence will be assets that cannot be overestimated. How to find assertiveness or the art of refusal in this effort of all competences; which means the ability to communicate with people while maintaining your own individuality and without imposing your opinion. The essence of assertiveness is based on the belief that everyone has the right to be themselves, that is, to express their feelings and views, to manage their own time and to make personal decisions. Contrary to appearances, it is not easy. There is a saying: "If you are in doubt as to whether a given behaviour is assertive, see if it increases your self-esteem a little." (You can find more about assertiveness and independence in section 1.1 of this course)


As a reminder, I will provide a diagram of the 4 stages of an assertive conversation:

  1. Provide information. If someone's behaviour does not suit us, irritates us or angers us, we bring them to our attention and ask them to behave differently. Usually people don't want to be nasty and change their behaviour.

  2. Express your feelings. If, despite the attention paid, someone continues to misbehave, we say a second time to change the behaviour. This time the tone of our voice should be more firm and decisive. We also inform you what we feel about his behaviour.

  3. A warning about the consequences that threaten him if he does not change his behaviour. Let us remember that the consequences should be real (the ones that we will really apply).

  4. Consistency. If, despite our reaction, someone does not change their behaviour, we apply the announced consistency. 


Example: we are talking to a friend on the phone. At some point, she starts screaming. The four steps are as follows.

  • I am asking you not to raise your voice to me.

  • Don't yell when you call me because I feel very bad about it.

  • If you keep screaming, I will stop talking to you on the phone.

  • You keep shouting, so I end the call. And we hang up the phone.• You keep shouting, so I end the call. And we hang up the phone.


Exercise 18


Exercise 19


Example 1 - own needs


Example 2 - the needs of the other person


Exercise 20



Ability to work in a team, organizational skills

Remember to work with your colleagues, not against them. Most job advertisements require this skill. The best solutions for the company can be worked out as a team. Make criticism constructive, don't insult your coworkers, and don't be rude. If your idea is criticized, take that criticism on board, even if it's not always easy to do.


Each organization is one organism. Everyone should act in such a way as to influence the results of the entire company by pursuing their own goals. When everyone is responsible for specific tasks that come together, work becomes much faster and more effective. The ability to listen to other people and to conduct substantive discussions can also be developed.



Good work organization, time management

Time management is of great importance, both privately and professionally. When you manage your time well, you make sure you meet deadlines. You can also avoid unnecessary stress. Time management comes with resilience and organizational skills


Surely you have worked with a person who, instead of trying to find an answer to a given problem, was looking for a ready-made solution from others each time. Of course, you should not refuse to help less experienced employees, but do it in such a way that they can figure out how to solve the problem themselves.


The ability to manage yourself in time is also about proper prioritization. It's not about working as long as possible, but as efficiently as possible. You can learn that too! Specialized training and notebooks may be helpful. Review self-discipline material; this is a chapter containing many tips for making changes in your personal and professional life.




In a broad sense, leadership can be understood as the ability to influence individuals or a group in order to achieve specific results. Leadership is about setting direction, developing a vision for the future of the organization, as well as giving direction to people.


According to the encyclopaedia of management, “Leadership is defined in different ways because it is a term that does not have a recognized and accepted single definition. In a broad sense, leadership can be understood as the ability to influence individuals or a group in order to achieve specific results. In management, it should be understood as the ability to influence the behaviour of employees in order to achieve specific goals. Leadership is based primarily on the authority of the person as well as authority that others voluntarily accept. Leadership is about setting direction, developing a vision for the future of the organization, as well as giving direction to people. Leadership is also about motivating and inspiring, releasing energy in people. Leadership is necessary to create change and management is necessary to obtain results systematically. A good manager is a leader. "


Leadership has common areas with management, as well as those that show how different these definitions are. Most often, however, it is believed that the two concepts are separate, which to a large extent overlap. It can be assumed that management is the achievement of goals set by someone else. However, every well-managed company needs something more, therefore leadership has five additional elements, which are:

  • setting the course of action,

  • Provided inspiration

  • team building


Tab. 1 "Management functions and leadership functions14



Planning / Budgeting:

  • establishing an action plan and time schedule,

  • resource allocation

Goal setting:

  • creating a vision,

  • establishing a strategy,

  • explaining general assumptions,

Organizing and engaging employees:

  • job allocation,

  • establishing rules and procedures,

  • developing a structure

Employee targeting:

  • communicating goals,

  • building coalitions and teams,

  • seeking involvement


  • taking corrective actions,

  • creating creative solutions,

  • developing incentives and incentives

Motivating and inspiring:

  • stimulating and inspiring to action,

  • delegating powers,

  • meeting the needs of the group

source: Karaszewski R., Leadership in the global business environment, Toruń 2008, page 68


A leader is a person who has the leadership qualities, knowledge and skills needed to lead a group in order to achieve his goals willingly. Adequate personality and character traits are required to guide people. When analysing the position of a leader in a group, we should start by describing the features that characterize him, which are:

  • Enthusiasm - it is important for the leader to show it, to set an example and approach all tasks positively.

  • Honesty - is understood as a personality trait, faithfulness to external values, honesty and nobility.

  • Firmness - it is important that the leader is demanding, persistent and resistant to adversities. He cares more about respect than popularity. He creates high standards that he himself adheres to.

  • Justice - the leader should be objective, reward and punish for results, not sympathy, and treat everyone equally.

  • Cordiality - A truly good leader engages not only the mind in his work, but also the heart.

  • Humility - is very important because it teaches you to listen to others and protects you from ego growth.

  • Self-confidence - it is important to believe in yourself, because it also works well for subordinates.


Exercise 21



Public speaking

Public speaking can cause a lot of stress and difficulties, not only in terms of content, but also visual and logistic. As with other soft skills, this skill can be acquired through experience. In order to help every beginner on the path to a perfect speech, here are 10 key tips. Experienced speakers can check themselves whether their performances in front of the audience do not require any correction?

  1. As they see you, this is how they write you - take care of your outfit. The first impression is built within seconds. Therefore, it is not worth exposing yourself to unnecessary criticism or prejudice from the audience. Try to dress neatly and simply. Also, avoid uncomfortable, embarrassing and too tight garments. A shirt and a pencil skirt and a jacket for a woman, and a suit, or a shirt and elegant trousers for a man will work well regardless of the subject of the training. Remember that the audience is supposed to focus on what you say, not what you look like. Do not distract them, but show professionalism.

  2. The setting of the speech - the power of gestures. Body language is another element of our image and invaluable help in establishing cooperation between the speaker and the listener. Moderate change of location during the presentation, pointing to a specific sub-point of the presentation, showing the area on the map. These activities stimulate the audience to listen, prevent boredom, but also prove that the presenter is confident and prepared. If gesturing is not your forte, try at least while standing to maintain an open attitude towards the audience. So avoid sitting behind a desk - reach out to your audience and make contact with them.

  3. Eye contact. When giving a lecture or conducting workshops, it is necessary to make eye contact with the audience. Only in this way will they be aware that what you are talking about is aimed at them. Thus, you will avoid a situation where half of the room looks at the screens of smartphones and tablets.

  4. Tone of speech and voice modulation. Adapt your speech to the topic. Don't present an issue in one breath. Do you raise a controversial topic? Try to ask a rhetorical question. Are you presenting a difficult phenomenon, or maybe the effects of a catastrophe or accident? Pause for a few seconds. Build the mood and impression, and you will make the audience remember your speech for a long time.

  5. Avoid the card. One of the most common mistakes made by the speakers is excessive attachment to the sheet with the text of the speech. Some people even go so far as to read the whole thing. Let us remember that the reading skill was probably mastered by each of the gathered people, and the purpose of their arrival was to listen to living statements. So prepare, at most, a framework plan for the presentation. Put it in front of you. Holding it in your hand will constantly focus your eyes on the text. It will also make it difficult for you to fulfill the rule from the second point. Prepare in advance and speak naturally. Listeners will appreciate your confidence and preparation. Also, don't memorize your speech - it will only make your stress worse and sound artificial. You need to know what you want to say. Then no situation will surprise you.

  6. Establish a relationship. The best presenters know very well that interaction is essential in gaining audience sympathy. Try to ask a question, ask for an opinion. You can also add an anecdote. Confirm your skills and commitment by allowing you to ask questions when in doubt.

  7. Apply additional tools. It can be a multimedia presentation, a short film or a photo slideshow. In this way, you will keep your interest in the subject, and thus help yourself to present some phenomena or processes

  8. Create a story. A good solution to gain interest and sympathy is to share a subjective life story in relation to the presented phenomenon.

  9. Stress is your enemy. Even the most refined speech can be destroyed by ourselves. Just before going out in front of the audience, don't think about what you say. If you are prepared, there is nothing to fear. Remember that your stress can also generate a distanced approach from your audience. A smile or even a joke at the beginning of the meeting will help you alleviate the stiff atmosphere and fears.

  10. Stick to the scheduled time. If your speech is to be in 60 minutes, try to end it 10 minutes early. It is worth devoting the last moments to possible questions from the audience, clarifying misunderstood issues. Please respect your listeners' time. If you drag out the lecture, distraction and nervous glances towards the door are guaranteed. Leave a good impression. Too long presentation may mean that you have not fully thought through the concept of the speech.


Practice. Try to prepare a plan for your presentation in advance, so that you have time to practice it yourself at home and before Wednesday


Exercise 22



Work ethic and professional attitude15

According to the PWN encyclopaedia, professional ethics is "a set of standards setting out specific moral obligations related to the performed profession and social professional relations (eg medical and legal ethics)".

According to J. Sikora, one of the authors of "Sociology of work", professional ethics consists of:

  • professional specification of the generally recognized moral requirements in society

  • a hierarchy of values ​​specific to each system of professional morality

  • a specific method of resolving conflicts of moral values, preferred by a professional group.


 Professional ethics is, therefore, a set of moral principles that should be followed by representatives of a given profession. It is especially important in professions of public trust, where employees face moral dilemmas or there is a conflict between private and social interests. Examples of such professions are doctor, lawyer, judge, policeman, teacher or journalist.


The term ethics is often used interchangeably with the word "morality" and is referred to as "the science of morality". Ethics is to protect not only customers and patients, but also employees themselves. Its rules show them the way of proper conduct and protect them against abuse, irregularities, etc.


Professional ethics is indirectly mentioned in the Constitution in Art. 17: "Professional self-governments may be established by law, representing persons performing professions of public trust and supervising the proper performance of these professions within the limits of the public interest and for its protection".


This means that certain professional groups are granted a certain autonomy and authority to enforce the standards of professional ethics.


The code of professional ethics is a document in which the moral principles applicable in a given profession have been written down, we call it the code of professional ethics. It allows you to maintain consistency between the mission of the organization and the requirements for employees. The code of professional ethics does not have a normative force, but it is honorary.


According to Wojciech Drzeżdżon's "Ethical Aspects of Professional Work", the Code of Professional Ethics should:

  • first of all, normalize (and not contain a description of the values ​​and ideals that the corporation serves)

  • take care of the public interest (it should not contain provisions for which the justification is only to protect the interests of members of the corporation)

  • be factual and honest, and must regulate important and job-specific problems (and not set norms that are inherent in common morality anyway).


 In general, the main principle followed by the authors of codes of professional ethics is the non-contradiction of their ethical principles with the norms of applicable law.



Evaluation quiz no.2

Analyses and write down your answers to the questions included in exercises 18-22.




14. źródło: Karaszewski R., Przywództwo w środowisku globalnego biznesu, Toruń 2008, str 68

15. https://interviewme.pl/blog/etyka-zawodowa
















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