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"The biggest problem with communication is the illusion that it has happened." G.B. Shaw


Listening carefully is an important skill. Basic rules for being a good listener:

Listening is a complex process of perceiving, interpreting, and responding to a message.


Listening is receiving verbal messages from our interlocutor.

  • Listening is not:

  • for a rest, after which we start talking,

  • two interlocutors interrupting each other,

  • for quick memory of questions or facts,

  • to wait your turn to say something

  • about judging in the mind of your interlocutor,

  • about figuring out how to counter arguments.

  • Preferred ways of listening

  • a people-oriented listener

  • a listener focusing on the way that the fact that he is listening influences interpersonal relationships

  • an action-oriented listener 

  • a listener focusing on how the fact that he is listening influences the task being performed

  • content-oriented listener - a listener who appreciates information from reliable sources and focuses on analysing what he hears sources and focuses on analysing what he hears



Communicativeness and communication

In the simplest terms, interpersonal communication could be closed in the pattern: sender-message-recipient. We know, however, that despite the fact that this model is true, it does not exhaust the topic of nuances related to interpersonal communication.


Interpersonal communication is a phenomenon that accompanies us from the beginning of life; it is a message flowing into the world, towards another person ("interpersonal" means just "between people"). It is the basic tool for building and maintaining social relations. It is thanks to communication that we exchange thoughts, ideas, observations, warn each other about potential threats, conduct conflicts and build alliances. Each of us is born with a range of skills in this area, but thanks to experience, socialization and all kinds of learning processes, we develop the scope of our competences in the field of interpersonal communication.


It is true that, as in the case of other skills, we have certain predispositions or tendencies that affect our effectiveness in this area, but communication, like any other competence, can be subjected to training. It is worth looking at your interpersonal communication methods - how they shape our reality and which elements of it should be improved. The way we communicate affects our relationships, private and professional lives. There is practically no area of ​​life that is not related to some degree with communication.


Every act of communication is a process, usually includes some basic elements such as:

  • context,

  • language used,

  • symbols

  • message

  • transmission channel, etc.


We constantly send messages involuntarily to the world and the environment, whether we like it or not, reads and interprets them. It is important that the method of communication is adapted to the recipient.

Much has been said about the complexity of communication mechanisms, but when considering your own development in this field, it is worth looking at its components.


Communication is an act of a social nature, so the requirement for its occurrence is the presence of at least two individuals. The social context is the number of people involved in a given act of communication and other determinants of this phenomenon. Each person in a given communication process has their own way of coding and decoding the message, which is why individual characteristics and skills have such a great influence on the entire process. It is because of these differences that the act of communication is creative, dynamic and often unpredictable. The effectiveness of communication also depends on the extent to which participants use the same symbols.

Often, the need or necessity of an agreement forces them to assimilate and use signs that are understandable to both parties.




What kind of interference may we encounter between the sender and the recipients of the message? These are among others:

  • Low level of interest

  • Distractions

  • Conducting an internal dialogue

  • Defective way of communicating information

  • Body language inconsistent with the content of the statement, transmitting contradictory at the same time

  • messages

  • Poor eye contact

  • Waiting to speak

  • Habit of not listening

  • Defence (we don't want to hear something)

  • Premature formulation of assumptions and conclusions

  • Not communicating what you are really thinking

  • When do people listen but cannot hear?

  • No common code

  • The sender's message does not accurately reflect his intentions

  • The recipient interprets the message differently

  • The statement is unclear 


In addition to disruptions, we also have communication barriers. It is the so-called "dirty dozen") according to T. Gordon16

  • Criticizing

  • Naming

  • Making diagnoses

  • Praise combined with evaluation

  • Ordering

  • Threats

  • Moralizing

  • Asking too many or the wrong questions

  • Giving advice

  • Distraction

  • Logical argumentation

  • Calming down 


Knowing how to talk, what to pay attention to and what to avoid while ensuring good and correct information transfer - we can move on.


Exercise 23



Immunity, including resistance to stress

We live under constant stress, we work a lot, eat poorly and rarely rest. And this translates into a decrease in immunity and vitality.

Employers must be able to rely on their employees' readiness to meet their goals, even with a heavy workload. When you can withstand stressful situations, you will make a good impression on the manager and will be considered a valued employee.


Although stress is talked about primarily in a negative context, it can motivate you to act in moderation. In many professions it cannot be completely eliminated. That is why it is worth learning the techniques of dealing with nervous tension, e.g. through breathing exercises or regular physical activity.


There are many ways to fight stress and, to be honest, there is no one real recipe, because for each of us it is an extremely individual matter. Therefore, we present several methods of fighting stress or preventing bad feelings from overwhelming us. There is a high probability that you will find the one that will be perfect for you.

  • Learn to relax. Yoga or reading a book have a relaxing effect, but also a bath with a lot of foam and the addition of aromatic oil.

  • Think positive.  Put negative thoughts out of your mind. Try to be optimistic. Look for the good side of even these bad events. And believe in yourself: look in the mirror and think about what is good in you, and what you become aware of, repeat in your mind or out loud as soon as you feel that black clouds are approaching.

  • Don't blame on everything. Let's be more patient and understanding with ourselves and others. Not always everything has to be done in tip-top, not always our children have to have only sixes, and we do not always have to be perfect in every situation. Let's give it up a bit, spread out the responsibilities, let's engage others to carry them out.

  • Physical activity. Regular exercise and walks not only reduce stress but also help control blood sugar levels. So allocate at least half an hour a day to exercise every day.



Negotiation skills

An efficient negotiator should comprehensively and reliably obtain and use certain necessary information - concerning both the specific situation and the planned goal, as well as the people with whom the talks will be conducted. It is also necessary to prioritize what we want to achieve as a result of the negotiations.


The condition for effective negotiation is not only having the necessary knowledge, but also the ability to use it in solving practical negotiation problems. When considering the abilities and skills that an efficient negotiator should have, one should take into account both those of a more general nature, necessary for efficient operation in a modern company, and the more specific ones, desirable in negotiation situations. Negotiations are a very important aspect both in life and in business. We meet with negotiations every day as part of our professional duties, in family and social life. You could say that we don't get what we deserve, but what we negotiate.


Nowadays, more and more people decide to work on the basis of self-employment or to perform the so-called a freelance profession. Regardless of whether we want to develop as independent consultants, within the structure of the company, or by running our own business - it is worth taking care of continuous improvement of our qualifications. Effective career development - regardless of the form in which it is - requires a certain amount of capital, including knowledge, skills and the so-called "Soft skills". The latter category includes, inter alia, ability to solve problems, communicate with the environment, and negotiation skills. While not everyone has the qualities of a diplomat, there are ways to improve your negotiating skills in 5 steps. What are these methods? We invite you to familiarize yourself with our proposals ...

  1. Before starting any negotiations, it is worth analysing the specific skills that should be acquired (or developed). An efficient negotiator should comprehensively and reliably obtain and use certain necessary information - concerning both the specific situation and the planned goal, as well as the people with whom the talks will be conducted. It is also necessary to prioritize what we want to achieve as a result of the negotiations. Only when you have an appropriate "base" of knowledge, you can start building a strategy. Based on the main goals, you can also formulate specific offers (preferably in the number of several alternatives), plan which argumentation and persuasion techniques we will use, create an image of ourselves as a negotiator.

  2. It is worth realizing that not only the facts are important in the negotiation process, but also the way they are communicated. Our image must be credible, but at the same time it should be adapted to a specific situation. The analysis of the situation should be conducted on an ongoing basis - both on the basis of verbal information and gestures made by the other party. A good negotiator must learn to listen, but also to observe. Only then will it be able to use negotiation techniques (which should always be adapted to specific person).

  3. Having some knowledge about your options, it is worth getting acquainted with the basic negotiation styles. They can be based on different competencies. And yes - if ours a strong point is matter-of-factness and argumentation skills, it is worth choosing a style of striving for domination. If, however, the main advantage is flexibility and the ability to empathize with the other side - then it is better to use the fitting style.

  4. The next step is to learn the basic techniques of persuasion in negotiations. Let's take a look at the most commonly used:

  • building a sense of community with the other party - when contacting the client or superior, you should focus on the features that connect us. It may be a shared goal, but shared interests, views, and tastes also matter. The negotiation process should not, of course, be based on too much familiarity with the other party, but it is worth introducing some "warming" elements to our image;

  • the tactic of a wolf in sheep's clothing - it involves creating a completely different image of yourself. The negotiator emphasizes his lack of competence (obviously apparent), reveals his weaknesses - all in order to lull the vigilance and to some extent manipulate the opponent;

  • the tactic of extending the entire process, "stalling" - this is a method in which the main task is to fatigue the other party so that it can propose concessions, just to complete the transaction faster;

  • using a bluff - useful especially when we are in a lost position;

  • Compliments - and it is extremely important to match them to a specific person. The sense of observation is very useful here - only in this way will we gain the trust of the other party. The technique often requires long practice but is very profitable in the long run;

  1. In order to effectively improve your negotiating skills, it is worth practicing as often as possible. Let's start with the fact that negotiations can affect almost every sphere of life, they are not limited to commercial transactions. The laws governing them are very universal - first of all, you should avoid personal attacks, focus on analyzing problems, looking for a consensus. The first offer formulated by us should always represent a higher level than the one we want to achieve. This will allow you to keep a certain margin. Moreover, flexibility is extremely important.17



Cultural fluidity 

cultural intelligence18 is the ability of an organization to adapt to different cultural realities. The expression of her abilities is the ability to identify cultural differences, their appropriate interpretation and taking into account the acquired knowledge in overcoming problems resulting from differences. Having such an ability makes people sensitive to cultural differences "in" and "between" organizations, which protects against stereotypical perception of representatives of other cultures and allows for skilful use of their experiences and knowledge in the course of cooperation (both in the form of cooperation and cooperation, i.e. with competitors). Cultural fluidity is the set of organizational skills and abilities necessary for effective functioning in the global economy. It is the ability to "smoothly" move in the sphere of business in different cultures. A culturally fluid organization is an organization whose management is aware of its culture and its relations with the implemented strategy, has the ability to carry out cultural changes in it, and skilfully uses the cultural diversity of the workforce and the surrounding business environment. It seems that the abovementioned abilities constitute the basis of the model of the effective functioning of a modern organization. A model based on relationships, intuition, communication skills, the ability to empathize with the needs of others and based on shaping the climate of effective cooperation inside and between organizations (even with competitors). The model, in many cases similar or evolving towards inter-organizational networks, which reduce labor costs and make it easier for partners to jointly search for sources of success (e.g. employee talents, new products, new technologies, new organizational solutions, new ways of reaching the customer, etc. ), but also accelerate: building a better reputation, improving the efficiency of market activities, reacting to market changes, the possibility of lowering the price of the final good, higher profitability of activities, strengthening the resource potential, increasing innovation.19


Exercise 24


Evaluation quiz # 3

Review and write down your answers to the questions in exercises 23 to 24



16. https://www.focus.pl/artykul/12-bledow-w-komunikacji-ktore-utrudniaja-dogadywanie-sie-z-innymi

17. https://instream.io/pl/jak-poprawic-swoje-umiejetnosci-negocjacyjne-w-5-krokach/

18. https://docplayer.pl/43493618-Kobieca-i-meska-kultura-organizacyjna-oraz-plynnosc-kulturowa-wprocesach-nawiazywania-wspolpracy-miedzyorganizacyjnej-kooperacji-i-kooperencji1.html

19. Rakowska A.: Kompetencje menedżerskie kadry kierowniczej we współczesnych organizacjach, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie Skłodowskiej. Lublin, 2007. I 15.' Więcej patrz: Doz Y., Hamel G.: Alliance Advantage. The Art o f Creating Value throughPartnering, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1998; Adamik A.: Współpraca sieciowaw funkcjonowaniu współczesnych MSP |w:J Studia i Prace Kolegium Zarządzania i Finansów SGH, Zeszyt Naukowy 99, Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie, 2010, s. 7-16.111 Masłyk- Musiał li.: Organizacje w ruchu, Olicyna Ekonomiczna, Kraków, 2003, s. 111.11 Więcej patrz Adamik A.: Partnerzy, formy i obszary współpracy małych i średnichprzedsiębiorstw w regionie i ich efektywność |w :| A. Adamik (red.), Współpraca małych i średnichprzedsiębiorstw w regionie. Budowanie konkurencyjności firm i regionu, Difin, Warszawa, 2012, s. 250-303.12 Toffler A.: Szok przyszłości, PIW, Warszawa, 1974, s. 439.11 tendencja do tolerancji wobec zachowań innych osób1' Bate P.: Using the Culture Concept in an Organization Development Setting, „The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science” 1990, No. I














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